Different types of seizures that occur

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Types of Seizures and Their Classifications

Focal Seizures

Focal onset awareness seizures: These replace simple partial seizures. They can be brief, lasting seconds to a couple of minutes, and may involve unusual automatisms. Respond by guiding the individual to safety, speaking calmly, and reassuring them.

Focal onset impaired awareness seizures: Formerly known as complex partial seizures, these may have an aura or warning. They spread to several parts of the brain, affecting mood, behaviour, and consciousness. Automatisms like lip smacking and wandering may occur.

Focal to bilateral tonic-clonic seizures: Replacing partial with secondary generalized seizures, these start in one area of the brain and spread to both sides. The person may lose consciousness and not recover between seizures.

Generalized Seizures

Tonic-clonic seizures: Involving both sides of the brain from the onset, these seizures cause loss of consciousness, muscle stiffening (tonic phase), and jerking (clonic phase). They can last one to two minutes or longer and may require medical attention if prolonged.

Absence seizures: Also known as petit mal seizures, these involve brief loss of consciousness without convulsions. They often last less than 20 seconds and may go unnoticed.

Myoclonic seizures: Characterized by brief, jerking movements of the limbs or body, often occurring in clusters. They may be mistaken for clumsiness or muscle spasms.

Atonic seizures: Also called drop attacks, these cause sudden loss of muscle tone, leading to falls or collapses.

Management and Treatment

Response to seizures should follow a tailored management or care plan, ensuring the individual's safety and comfort. Treatment options include medication, dietary therapy like the ketogenic diet, surgery, and devices such as vagal nerve stimulators.

Observations and Care

During and after seizures, observe the individual for changes in condition, breathing, and responsiveness. Ensure their safety, provide comfort, and stay with them until they fully recover. Seek medical attention if seizures are prolonged or if status epilepticus occurs.